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Lesson 4

Territory of Ukraine

author: Myron Hordiichuk

Kievan Rus, ХІ century
Ukraine, ХХІ century

Ukraine is the largest European country by its territory. Its restored statehood in 1991 has its origins in the medieval empire of Kievan Rus and the traditions of Cossack self-government.

The country has access to the Black and Azov Seas. The climate is mild. There are 3 main natural areas – steppe, forest-steppe, and forest zone, as well as mountains (Carpathians and Crimea). A small strip of the south of Ukrainian Crimea has a subtropical climate.

Ukraine is a space of cultural and natural diversity with huge tourist potential.

ЯIf we decide to show you all the most exciting places in Ukraine, it's going to be a long video. There are over 20 historical and geographical regions in Ukraine. Let's travel virtually through Ukrainian lands, remembering some of the areas towards which the Russian aggression is directed in 2022.

The Russian invasion of Ukraine, spring 2022.

Interesting places in Ukraine

Let's start with Budjak and Ackermann's late medieval fortress on the ruins of the ancient city of Thira.

Budzhak on the map of Ukraine.

Ackerman Fortress.

Odesa

The Black Sea coast is a region where the ancient Greeks once lived alongside local nomads. Today Odesa is the largest port in Ukraine.

Kherson & Mykolayiv

Further to the east are the cities of Mykolayiv and Kherson. Unfortunately, a front line was established between them in the spring of 2022, as the Russians managed to occupy Kherson temporarily. One of the attractions of the Mykolayiv region is the Aktiv Canyon.

In the Kherson region, you can see one of the largest sand massifs in Europe – Oleshkiv Sands and the largest steppe biosphere reserve in Europe – Askania-Nova.

Crimea

The multicultural Ukrainian Crimea is not only the sea and the Crimean mountains, but it is also the homeland of the Crimean Tatars with their capital in Bakhchisarai.

Mountain Ayu-Dag, Crimea.

Khan's Palace in Bakhchisarai.

Gastronomic symbols of the south of Ukraine are Kherson watermelons and Melitopol cherries (from the Zaporizhia region).

Donbas

Donbas (Donetsk coal basin) is a Ukrainian region that has been at the center of the Russian-Ukrainian war since 2014. It is known not only for coal mines but also for salt mines in the city of Soledar. Here is one of the world's largest salt mining companies.

Salt vaults in Soledar.

Kharkiv

To the north of Soledar is Kharkiv – the country's scientific center, the largest city in Slobozhanshchyna, and the second-most populous city in Ukraine.

The State Industrial Complex (1928) building in Kharkiv was the first Soviet skyscraper.

The building of the State Industrial Complex in Kharkiv.

Chernihiv

On the Desna River is Chernihiv, which in the XI-XII centuries was a competitor of Kyiv for the role of the center of Kievan Rus. In February-March 2022, the heroic defense of this city attracted some enemy troops and contributed to the victory of Ukrainian forces in the battle for Kyiv.

The historical center of Chernihiv.

Chornobyl

The miniseries "Chornobyl" in 2019 aroused wild tourist interest in the local (no longer operating) nuclear power plant and the 1986 tragedy. In February-March 2022, Russian troops attacked Kyiv through the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone from the Belarusian border. This seems to have been the main route of Putin's failed blitzkrieg to preserve Kyiv. The occupiers left the site of the greatest man-made disaster of the twentieth century.

Shot from the miniseries "Chornobyl".

Chornobyl NPP.

Kyiv

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine and medieval Rus. Civilizational and sacred center for both Ukrainians and other Christians of the Eastern rite. The second Jerusalem – this is how local intellectuals popularized the city in different eras.

Kyiv is a metropolis of free and different people. Its main square, Independence Square (or simply Maidan), has become a world synonym for revolutionary change. Ukrainians have called the latest large-scale protests against the rejection of European integration aspirations (in 2013-2014) a Revolution of Dignity. Kyiv was the main target of the Russian invasion, which began on February 24, 2022. Ukrainians have defended their capital and are now fighting for their independence for 9 years in the war with Russia, which started on February 20, 2014.

How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine?
How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine?

It is to appreciate the nature and resources of your state.

Lesson 5

Language

Lesson 5