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Lesson 2

History of the origin of Ukraine and the beginning of the nation

Author: Vladislav Rublenko

The Ukrainian state on the territory of modern Ukraine originated in the Middle Ages on both banks of the Dnieper River, with its center in Kyiv. From this time, the foundations of "Ukrainian statehood" were laid.

Rus Ukraine (state of Slavic tribes living on the territory of Ukraine) (IX-XIII centuries): unification of seven Slavic tribes, construction of schools, temples, libraries, struggle against Polo

Rus (Ukrainian) lands under the rule of the Mongols of the Golden Horde (XIII-XIV centuries): the decline of the economy, politics, and culture, permission to profess Christianity and speak their native language.

Possession of the Golden Horde in 1389.

Rus (Ukrainian) lands under the rule of Lithuanians, Poles, Hungarians, Moldavians, Turks, and Muscovites (XIV-XVII centuries): oppression of the local population for religion, language, nationality, closure of educational institutions with the Ukrainian language of instruction, and Orthodox churches.

Ukrainian Cossack state – "Zaporozhian Army" (Hetmanate) (1648-1764): the abolition of dependence of peasants on the rich. Everyone was given freedom of speech, religion, language of communication, and in the international arena, rapprochement with European countries.

Hetmanate (1649-1654) against the background of Ukraine.

Ukrainian lands under the rule of Austrians and Russians (second half of the eighteenth century -1918): tolerant attitude of Austrians to the local population of Western Ukraine and cruel treatment of the local population of Ukrainian lands that were subject to the Russians.

Ukrainian People's Republic (1917-1918): the struggle for the unification and independence of the Ukrainian lands from Russia, the proclamation of democratic rights and freedoms for the people, the creation of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, and the resolution of the Ukrainian language.

A modern map of Europe defining Ukraine's borders was announced by the UPR delegation at the Paris World Conference in 1919-20.

Pavlo Skoropadsky's Ukrainian State (1918): the creation of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the establishment of universities, the Academy of Sciences, the National Library, the archive, the theater, the historical museum, the art gallery.

Map of the Ukrainian state of Pavlo Skoropadsky (1918).

Ukrainian People's Republic (1918-1919): the struggle against the Russians, the White Guards.

Ukrainian lands under Bolshevik rule (1919-1991): liquidation of private property, restriction of rights and freedoms, the enslavement of peasants by collective farms, artificial famine, and struggle against opponents of power.

Independent Ukraine (1991): rapprochement with European countries, "Granite Revolution", "Orange Revolution", "Revolution of Dignity", Ukrainian diaspora, a study of "white spots" in history, cultural development, sports achievements of Ukrainians, Russia's war against Of Ukraine.

Since the ninth century and ending today in the territory of modern Ukraine has been and continues to be the process of formation and development of the Ukrainian state ("Ukrainian statehood"), which has been associated with various Ukrainian states in the past.

The existence of the Ukrainian state at different times on the territory of modern Ukraine contributed to the unification of all Ukrainians territorially, who preserved and passed down from generation to generation the language, customs, rituals, and traditions that in the nineteenth century allowed the activists to begin the Ukrainian national revival. As a result, the inhabitants of the Ukrainian lands began to realize their own identity and belonging to the Ukrainians, despite the prohibitions of the Russian authorities.

How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine?
How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine? How to be brave like Ukraine?

It is never to be afraid of anyone or anything.

Lesson 3

Population

Lesson 3